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Cirsium Mill.
thistle

Data Source

Last revised by:
USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team
Curated and maintained by:
USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team
 

Data Documentation

Documentation State Type
1893. Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. AZ Literature
1900. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. New York Botanical Garden, New York. MT Literature
1908. Rhodora. IA Literature
1911. Muhlenbergia. CO Literature
1913. Muhlenbergia. CO Literature
1924. Rhodora. MA Literature
1942. Indiana Academy of Science. IN Literature
1963. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. WI Literature
1968. Castanea. MS Literature
1969. Canadian Journal of Botany. TX Literature
1969. Four Seasons. CA Literature
1973. Madroño. CA Literature
1974. Canadian Journal of Botany. NV Literature
1974. Great Basin Naturalist. WA Literature
1974. Madroño. ID, NV, OR Literature
1977. Wassman Journal of Biology. CA Literature
1980. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. AZ Literature
1981. Four Seasons. CA Literature
1985. Wassman Journal of Biology. CA Literature
1986. Sida. NM Literature
1988. Great Basin Naturalist. NV Literature
1990. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. NJ Literature
1990. Madroño. AZ Literature
1991. Douglasia. WA Literature
1993. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. AZ Literature
1998. New Mexico Naturalist's Notes. NM Literature
1999. Novon. AZ, NM Literature
1999. University of Minnesota Herbarium: Vascular plant collection. MN Literature
2000. CalFlora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. The CalFlora Database, Berkeley. CA Literature
2000. New Mexico Botanist. NM Literature
2002. New Mexico Botanist. NM Literature
Abrams, L. 1960. An illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford. CA, ID, UT, WA Literature
Ahlenslager, K., and P. Miller. 1999. Establishment record for Halliday Fen Research Natural Area within the Colville National Forest. Pend Oreille County, Washington. USDA Forest Service. WA Literature
Alabama Natural Heritage Program. AL Literature
Anonymous. Personal communication to John Kartesz. AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, MD, ME, MN, MO, MS, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OK, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI, WY Literature
Arizona Heritage Data Management System. AZ Literature
Arkansas State Plant Board. Regulations on plant diseases and pests (20 October 2003). Arkansas State Plant Board, Arkansas. Literature
Assorted authors. State noxious weed lists for 46 states. State agriculture or natural resource departments. Literature
Atkinson, S., and F. Sharpe. 1985. Wild plants of the San Juan Islands. The Mountaineers, Seattle. WA Literature
Atwood, J.T., et al. 1973. Check list of Vermont plants. Vermont Botanical and Bird Club. VT Literature
BLMLK. Specimen at Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview, Oregon. OR Specimen
BOIS. Specimen at Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, Idaho. ID Specimen
BOIS. Specimen at Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, Idaho. ID Specimen
BOIS. Specimen at Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, Idaho. ID Specimen
Barger, T.W., D.D. Spaulding, and B.D. Holt. 2013. The vascular flora of the Perdido River Forever Wild tract, Baldwin County, Alabama. Castanea 78: 119-133. AL Literature
Barkworth, Mary E. Personal communication. DE Literature
Björk, C.,and T. McIntosh. 2007. Noteworthy collections. British Columbia. Madroño 54: 366-367. BC Literature
Bluhm, Wilbur. Personal communication. OR Literature
Boggs (ALA V0128409). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Booth, W.E., and J.C. Wright. 1966. Flora of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman. MT Literature
Britton, N.L., and P. Wilson. 1926. Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York. PR Literature
Brouillet, L., F. Coursol, and M. Favreau. 2006. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada. Herbier Marie-Victorin, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal. AB, BC, GL, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SB, SK, YT Literature
Brown, M.L., and R.G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore. MD Literature
Bryson, C.T.,and D.A. Skojac, Jr. 2011. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Washington County, Mississippi. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5: 855-866. MS Literature
Buegge, J.J. Flora of the Santa Teresa Mountains in Graham County, Arizona. AZ Literature
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
California Native Plant Society. Inventory of rare and endangered plants. CA Literature
Campbell, J., and M. Medley. 2012. The atlas of vascular plants in Kentucky. KY Literature
Campbell, Julian. Personal communication. KY Literature
Chambers, K.L., and S. Sundberg. 1998. Oregon vascular plant checklist: Asteraceae. Oregon Flora Project. Oregon State University, Corvalis. OR Literature
Charboneau, J.L.M., B.E. Nelson, and R.L. Hartman. 2013. A floristic inventory of Phillips and Valley counties, Montana (U.S.A.). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7(2): 847-878. MT Literature
Checklist of the vascular plants of San Diego County, California. San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego. CA Literature
Chester, E.W, B.E. Wofford, and R. Kral. 1997. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. Vol. 2. Miscellaneous Publication No. 13. Austin Peay State University, Clarksville. TN Literature
Chester, E.W., B.E. Wofford, R. Kral, H.R. DeSelm, and A.M. Evans. 1993. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. 2 vols. Center for Field Biology Miscellaneous Publication No. 9/13. Austin Peay State University, Clarksville. TN Literature
Clark, S. 1995. United States Fish and Wildlife Service report. Unpublished, on file at UC Davis Herbarium. CA Literature
Clemants, Steven. Personal communication. NY Literature
Cooperrider, T.S. 1982. Endangered and threatened plants of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Notes No. 16. Ohio State University, Columbus. OH Literature
Cooperrider, Tom S. Personal communication. OH Literature
Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1972. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West. New York Botanical Garden, New York. CA, CO, ID, NV, UT, WY Literature
Crovello, T.J., C.A. Keller, and J.T. Kartesz. 1983. The vascular plants of Indiana: A computer based checklist. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame. IN Literature
Cullina, M.D., B. Connolly, B. Sorrie, and P. Somers. 2011. The vascular plants of Massachusetts: A county checklist, first revision. Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough. MA Literature
Cunningham & Stanford 300-78 (ALA 00087410). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Damrel, D., D.J. Pinkava, and L.R. Landrum. The Phoenix flora. AZ Literature
Davis, R. 1952. Flora of Idaho. W.C. Brown Co., Dubuque. ID Literature
Deam, C.C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Wm.B. Burford Printing Co., Indianapolis. IN Literature
Delaware Natural Heritage Program. DE Literature
Deramus, R. 1970. Studies on the flora of the vascular plants of Dauphin Island, Mobile Co. Alabama. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. MS Literature
District of Columbia Natural Heritage Program. DC Literature
Domangue, B.E., and C.K. McMullen. 2013. Floristic survey of the vascular plants of Shenandoah County, Virginia. Castanea 78: 312-322. VA Literature
Dorn, R.D. 1977. Manual of the vascular plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York. WY Literature
Dorn, R.D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Mountain West Publishers, Cheyenne. MT Literature
Dowhan, J.J. 1979. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of Connecticut (growing without cultivation). State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Natural Resources Center, Department of Environmental Protection. Hartford. CT Literature
Duffy, Tande & Robinson 95-731 (ALA V0120691). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Duncan, W.H., and J.T. Kartesz. 1981. Vascular flora of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, Athens. GA Literature
Dwyer s.n. (ALA V0129314). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
EOSC. Specimen at Eastern Oregon University, Lagrande, Oregon. OR Specimen
EOSC. Specimen at Eastern Oregon University, Lagrande, Oregon. OR Specimen
EOSC. Specimen at Eastern Oregon University, Lagrande, Oregon. OR Specimen
Eilers, L.J., and D.M. Roosa. 1991. The vascular plants of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. IA Literature
Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. KS, ME, MN, PA, SD Literature
Fisher, T.R. 1988. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 3. Asteraceae. Ohio State University Press, Columbus. OH Literature
Friedman & Michaelson 83-63 (ALA V0100612). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Gasser 15-G (ALA 00010349). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
George, G.G. 1992. A synonymized checklist of the plants found growing in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Wild Plant Society. RI Literature
Gibson s.n. (ALA 00094703). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Glenn, S.D. (ed.). 2013. New York Metropolitan Flora database. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York. CT, NJ, NY Literature
Goldman, D.H. 1996. A preliminary vascular flora of the French Creek drainage of Western New York State. New York Flora Association Newsletter 7 (2): 3-12. NY Literature
Gunn, C.R., T.M. Pullen, E.A. Stadelbacher, J.M. Chandler, and J. Barnes. 1980. Vascular flora of Washington County, Mississippi, and environs. USDA Science and Education Administration. MS Literature
Halliday, Glenn. Personal communication. OR Literature
Hannick, V.C., J.N. Mink, J.R. Singhurst, and W.C. Holmes. 2013. Annotated checklist of the vascular flora of McLennan County, Texas. Phytoneuron 2013-29(29): 1-37. TX Literature
Hartman, R. 1992. Wyoming phytogeography. Unpublished. WY Literature
Hartman, R. Atlas of the vascular flora of Wyoming. Unpublished and undated. WY Literature
Hartman, R.L. 2001. A checklist of the vascular plants of Colorado. CO Literature
Harvill, A.M., C.E. Stevens, and D.M.E. Ware. 1981. Atlas of the Virginia flora, Part II. Dicotyledons. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville. VA Literature
Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, and L.E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the vascular plants of Texas (MP-1655). Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station. TX Literature
Haubrich, G. 2002. Noxious weed spreadsheet. Washington State Department of Agriculture, Olympia. WA Literature
Haynes, R. 1990. A database of the Alabama flora. Unpublished. AL Literature
Heil, K.D, and S.L. O'Kane, Jr. 2002. Catalog of the Four Corners flora - vascular plants of the San Juan River Drainage: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, 6th ed. AZ, NM, UT Literature
Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson manual. University of California Press, Berkeley. CA Literature
Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. 5 vols. University of Washington Press, Seattle. OR, WA Literature
Hitchcock, C.L., and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle. ID Literature
Hogan, Tim. Personal communication. CO Literature
Hough, M.Y. 1978. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony. NJ Literature
Hrusa, F., B. Ertter, A. Sanders, G. Leppig, and E. Dean. 2002. Catalog of non-native vascular plants occurring spontaneously in California beyond those addressed in The Jepson Manual. Part I. Madroño 49: 61-98. CA Literature
Hrusa, G.F. 1997. Floristic list part of wetlands report submitted by J. Glazner Environmental Consulting. Unpublished. CA Literature
Hrusa, G.F. 1997. Report submitted to Glazner Environmental Consulting, Auburn CA. Unpublished. CA Literature
Hrusa, G.F. 2003. Noxious weeds data. Unpublished. CA Literature
Hrusa, G.F. Field work for Sierra Madre flora. Unpublished and undated. CA Literature
Hubbard, J.R., and W.S. Judd. 2013. Floristics of Silver River State Park, Marion County, Florida. Rhodora 115: 250-280. FL Literature
Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories: A manual of the vascular plants. Stanford University Press, Stanford. AK Literature
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
IDS. Specimen at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. ID Specimen
INVADERS database. ID, MT, OR, WA, WY Literature
Illinois Plant Information Network (ILPIN). IL Literature
Imdorf, G.J. 1995. Flora and vegetation of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness Area, Tonto National Forest, Gila County, Arizona. M.S. Thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe. AZ Literature
Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center. 2013. Endangered, threatened, and rare vascular plants of Indiana (16 April 2013). Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, IN. IN Literature
International Botanical Congress. 1969. A checklist of vascular plants of west-central Washington Pacific Coast to Columbia River. University of Washington Department of Botany, Seattle. WA Literature
Iowa Department of Agricultureand Land Stewardship. The Iowa weed law (20 October 2003). Iowa Department of Agriculture & land Stewardship, Iowa. Literature
Johnston, B. 1991. List of Colorado plants. Unpublished. CO Literature
Jones (ALA V0128516). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Jones, S.B., and N. Coile. 1988. The distribution of the vascular flora of Georgia. Herbarium, Department of Botany, Athens. GA Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 1988. A flora of Nevada. University of Nevada, Reno. NV Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 2001. Atlas of the Nevada flora. Unpublished. NV Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 2002. Atlas of the Arizona flora. Unpublished. AZ Literature
Kearney, T., and R.H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona flora with supplement. University of California Press, Los Angeles. AZ Literature
Keil, D.J. 1987. Preliminary list of the vascular flora of the Arroyo de la Cruz Region, San Luis Obispo County, California. Unpublished. CA Literature
Kemp, L., and S.R. Schuller. 1982. Checklist of the vascular plants of Thornton T. Munger Research Natural Area. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Administrative Report PNW-4. USDA Forest Service. WA Literature
Kennemore 1877 (ALA V0122617). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Kennemore wit Yaworsky, Standley & Klee 1890 (ALA V0124640). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Kuhn, B., B.E. Nelson,and R.L. Hartman. 2011. A floristic inventory of the Cimarron National Grassland (Kansas) and the Comanche National Grassland (Colorado). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5: 753-772. CO, KS Literature
Larson, J., B. Reif, B.E. Nelson, and R.L. Hartman. 2014. Floristic studies in north central New Mexico, U.S.A. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303. NM Literature
Layser, E.F. 1980. Flora of Pend Oreille County, Washington. Washington State University, Cooperative Extension, Pullman. WA Literature
Lee, R.D. 1999. New Mexico's invasive weeds. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. NM Literature
Lehr, J.H. 1978. A catalogue of the flora of Arizona. Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix. AZ Literature
Lowe, E.N. 1921. Plants of Mississippi. Mississippi State Geological Survey Bulletin No. 17. MS Literature
Magee, D. Flora of New England. Unpublished and undated. CT, MA, ME, NH, NY, RI, VT Literature
Makings, E. Upper San Pedro River checklist. Arizona State University, Tempe. AZ Literature
Mansfield, D.H. 2000. Flora of Steens Mountain. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. OR Literature
Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico. Strauss & Cramer, Germany. NM Literature
McAvoy, William. Personal communication. DE Literature
McCook, Lucile M. Personal communication. MS Literature
McGregor, R.L., et al. 1977. Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State University Press, Ames. IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, OK, SD Literature
McGregor, R.L., et al. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. KS Literature
McLaughlin, S.P., and E.A. Lewis. 2001. Floristic inventories of the Sonoita Creek State Natural Area and San Rafael State Park. Arizona State Parks Department report. University of Arizona, Tucson. AZ Literature
Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalogue of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. University of Louisville, Louisville. KY Literature
Meyer, J. 1990. Chrysler Herbarium Checklist. Manuscript. NJ Literature
Mississippi Natural Heritage Program. MS Literature
Mitchell, R.S. (ed.). 1986. A checklist of New York State plants. Contributions of a Flora of New York State, Checklist III. New York State Bulletin No. 458. New York State Museum, Albany. NY Literature
Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois, rev. ed. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville. IL Literature
Mohr., C. 1901. Plant life of Alabama. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium VI. AL Literature
Moore, Jennifer A. Personal communication. GA Literature
Moore, R.J., and C. Frankton. 1974. The thistles of Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Monograph No. 10. Ottawa. ND, NH, UT Literature
Muller 3421 (ALA 00087261). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Munz, P.A., and D.D. Keck. 1968. A California flora and supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley. CA Literature
NCU. Specimen at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. AR Specimen
NCU. Specimen at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. AR Specimen
NCU. Specimen at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. FL, GA, SC Specimen
NCU. Specimen at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. NC, SC Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. TX Specimen
New Jersey Natural Heritage Program. NJ Literature
New York Flora Association. 1990. Preliminary vouchered atlas of New York State flora, ed. 1. New York State Museum Institute, Albany. NY Literature
New York Natural Heritage Program. NY Literature
Norton-Brown Herbarium. Norton-Brown Herbarium (MARY) plant distribution records. 2014. University of Maryland, College Park. DE, MD Literature
Ohio Natural Heritage Database. OH Literature
Oregon Flora Project species list; species noted on herbarium specimens. Unpublished and undated. OR Literature
Oregon Natural Heritage Program. OR Literature
Ownbey, G.B., and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: A checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. MN Literature
Parker 9185 (ALA V0128672). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Parker, Bennett & Pohl 9933 (ALA V0130606). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Peck, M.E. 1961. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon, 2nd ed. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. OR Literature
Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1965. Atlas of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Department of Botany Technical Bulletin No. 165. Chapel Hill. NC, SC Literature
Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. NC, SC Literature
Ralph, R.A. Checklist of the vascular plants of the Coastal Plain of Delaware. Unpublished and undated. University of Delaware Department of Biology. DE Literature
Reed, R. 1987. Wisconsin vascular plants. Unpublished. WI Literature
Reif, B., J. Larson, B.F. Jacobs, B.E. Nelson, and R.L. Hartman. 2009. Floristic studies in north central New Mexico, U.S.A. The Tusas Mountains and the Jemez Mountains. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3: 921-961. NM Literature
Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania. Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. PA Literature
Rice, B. 1969. Plant checklist for Mineral King, California, Sequoia National Forest. Unpublished, on file at UC Davis Herbarium. USDA Forest Service, Porterville, CA. CA Literature
Richards, C.D., F. Hyland, and L.M. Eastman. 1983. Revised check-list of the vascular plants of Maine. Bulletin of the Josselyn Botanical Society, No. 11. ME Literature
Rink, G. Canyon de Chelly checklist. Arizona State University, Tempe. AZ Literature
Ripley, J.D. 1994. Vegetation of the United States Air Force Academy and the adjacent Regions of the Pike National Forest, El Paso County, Colorado. Department of Biology, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs. CO Literature
Roalson, E.H., and K.W. Allred (eds.). 1995. A working index of New Mexico vascular plant names, plus supplements. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. NM Literature
Rydberg, P.A. 1922. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains. Published by the author, New York. CO, UT Literature
SEINet. CO Literature
SOC. Specimen at Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon. OR Specimen
SOC. Specimen at Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon. OR Specimen
SOC. Specimen at Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon. OR Specimen
SOC. Specimen at Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon. OR Specimen
SRP. Specimen at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho. ID Specimen
SRP. Specimen at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho. ID Specimen
Schuller, S.R., and L.C. Cornelius. 1982. Checklist of the vascular plants of Goat Marsh Research Natural Area. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Administrative Report PNW-3. USDA Forest Service. WA Literature
Seymour, F.C. 1969. The flora of New England. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland. NH Literature
Shultz, Leila M. Personal communication. UT Literature
Simpson, C., J. Koenig, R. Love, B. Newhouse, N. Otting, S. Sundberg, D. Wagner, and P. Warner. 2002. Vascular plants of Lane County, Oregon. Native Plant Society of Oregon. OR Literature
Smith, E.B. 1988. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas, 2d ed. AR Literature
Sorrie, B.A. 1992. County checklist of Massachusetts plants. Unpublished. MA Literature
Specimen Management System for California Herbaria (SMASCH). CA Literature
Specimen at Douglas County Museum, Roseburg, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Douglas County Museum, Roseburg, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Douglas County Museum, Roseburg, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Douglas County Museum, Roseburg, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Douglas County Museum, Roseburg, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Douglas County Museum, Roseburg, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico. NM Specimen
Specimen at Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico. NM Specimen
Specimen at Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico. NM Specimen
Specimen at Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico. NM Specimen
Specimen at Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico. NM Specimen
Specimen at Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico. NM Specimen
Specimen at Linfield College, McMinnville, Oregon. OR Specimen
Specimen at Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland, Oregon. OR Specimen
St. John, H. 1963. Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, 3rd ed. Outdoor Pictures, Escondido. WA Literature
Stein, B.A., and S.F. Warrick (eds.). 1979. Granite Mountains resource survey. Environmental Field Program Publication No. 1. University of California, Santa Cruz. CA Literature
Stensvold 6888 (ALA V0122581). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia, 2nd ed., 4 vols. West Virginia Bulletin, Morgantown. WV Literature
Straw, R. Jackson and Josephine County checklist. Unpublished and undated. OR Literature
Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, eds. 1-4. Morton Arboretum, Lisle. IL Literature
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
Talbot ALA1C-2 (ALA V0143590). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Talbot NIZ02-5 (ALA V0149573). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Talbot NIZ5AX2 (ALA V0135137). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
Talbot & Talbot 429 (ALA V0125890). Specimen at University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska. AK Specimen
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